The Black Sea region has low rates of natural population growth.
It is advantageous to be close to the surrounding socio-economic areas.
The close location of the district to the main fuel and metallurgical bases of Ukraine is also positive. Another advantage is the existence of a ferry crossing with Bulgaria and Georgia. An extraordinary role is played by the coastal situation, due to which Ukraine has access to many world markets.
Among the negative features of EGP we can highlight a fairly distant location from the western borders of Ukraine and socio-economic areas located here.
The average population density is 60 people / km2, which is less than the average Ukrainian figure.
The Black Sea region has low rates of natural population growth. The decline in these rates has been observed since the mid-70’s of XX century. and is due to declining birth rates and rising mortality.
The natural increase is negative (- 6.5 ‰). One of the main reasons for the population decline is the relatively high proportion of older people (22%).
The Black Sea socio-economic region belongs to the multinational. The share of Ukrainians is 52.5%, Russians – 37%, Crimean Tatars – 3%; Bulgarians, Jews, Gagauz, Moldavians, Belarusians, Karaites, and others also live there.
As of 1.01. In 2005, the share of the urban population of the district was 64%.
The largest cities are Odessa (over 1 million people), Kerch, Evpatoria, Mykolaiv, Sevastopol, Kherson and Simferopol.
Natural conditions and resources
The Black Sea lowland and the Mountain Crimea stand out in the relief of the territory. But in general, the undulating plain prevails, which gradually decreases to the south, and on the Crimean peninsula, on the contrary, increases with the approach to the mountain range. The Crimean peninsula is the most complex and diverse in terms of geomorphology and landscape, where three parts are clearly distinguished: mountainous Crimea, plain Crimea and ridge-wavy Kerch Peninsula.
The climate of the region is characterized by certain contrasts and is characterized by several types from moderately warm to subtropical. The Black Sea lowland and steppe Crimea are characterized by a temperate continental climate with warm summers (average monthly July temperatures of 21 … 23 ° С) and moderate winters (average monthly January temperatures -1 … 5 ° С). Precipitation on the plains falls from 330 mm (Dnieper sands, which is the absolute minimum for Ukraine) to 450 mm. In the Mountain Crimea, the amount of precipitation reaches 1200 mm. There are often droughts, accompanied by dry winds and dust storms, which damage agriculture.
In terms of agro-climatic zoning, the area belongs to a very arid, moderately hot zone with mild winters, where there are favorable conditions for growing cereals, sugar beets, sunflowers, viticulture and horticulture on irrigated lands.
The hydrographic network of the district is characterized by the lowest density within Ukraine, although such large rivers as the Dnieper, Danube, Dniester and Southern Bug with tributaries flow here. Also within the district is the southern part of the Kakhovka reservoir; along the coast there are large estuaries (Dniester, Bug, Hadzhibey), which are used for fishing. There are many salt lakes in the steppe Crimea.
Rich and diverse soil cover of the area. Podzolic chernozems are widespread in the north-western part. In the rest of the steppe zone, low-humus chernozems and dark chestnut slightly saline soils are widespread. The valleys of the Danube and Dnieper are dominated by meadow-swamp and silty-swamp soils. Mountainous Crimea is covered with brown forest, as well as in places mountain-meadow and brown mountain soils. On the southern coast of Crimea, the soils are red earth.
Among metallic minerals, iron ores of the Kerch Basin are important; its ores contain impurities of manganese, vanadium, phosphorus.
More than half of the state reserves of fluxed limestones are concentrated in the district. The main deposits are Balaklava and Starokrymske.
The Black Sea socio-economic region is well supplied with raw materials for the construction industry – limestone, clay, kaolin, volcanic tuff.
Of great importance in the area is brine and therapeutic mud of lakes and estuaries, the waters of which contain salts of sodium, chlorine, bromine. Among these are the lakes Sivash, Lakske, Kuyalnytskyi and Khadzhibeysky estuaries.
Fuel mineral resources are represented by the Black Sea oil and gas province. Among the largest deposits are Glibivske, Zadornenske, Dzhankoyske. Strilkivske, Fontanivske, Olenivske gas (AR Crimea), Stormove, Golitsynske (Black Sea shelf), East Saratov (Odessa region) and Zmiivske (Black Sea shelf) – oil. The district is insufficiently provided with other types of fuel.
Manifestations of coal deposits were found in the Bakhchisaray district of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, brown coal – in the Yelanets district of the Nikolaev area, the Bolgrad district of the Odessa region. But they have no industrial significance.
Economic complex of the district
In the national division of labor, the Black Sea socio-economic region specializes in write lab reports for money online the production of agricultural products (grain, sunflower, vegetables, fruits, grapes, wool), food industry (canned fruits and vegetables, grape wines, champagne, cognac, essential oil, tobacco). and light (cotton, woolen fabrics) industry, production of mechanical engineering (ships, machines, presses, agricultural machinery) and chemistry (bromine, varnish, soda ash, titanium dioxide), on the resort and recreational economy. The international specialization of the district is sea and rail transport.
A specific and large-scale inter-district and international specialization of the district is a recreational complex consisting of a resort economy, tourism and recreation. In 2005, there were more than 300 sanatoriums and 250 boarding houses and rest homes in the district, the largest – in the south of Crimea and in Odessa region.
The territory of the district is a part of the Southern recreational district of Ukraine. One of the defining resources here is the climate, the features of which are favorable for the organization of sanatorium treatment and other recreational activities. The area has significant reserves of mineral waters, iodine-bromine brines, therapeutic muds.
The leading role in the industrial complex of the Black Sea socio-economic region is occupied by light industry, primarily textile, knitwear, clothing, leather and footwear and fur.
The textile and knitting industry is represented by the Kherson Cotton Mill, the Sevastopol Factory of Sports Knitwear, the Odessa Harness Factory, the Evis Garment Association (Mykolaiv), and others.
The footwear industry is developed in Odessa, Nikolaev, Simferopol.
JSC "Red Sails" (Nikolaev) has considerable capacities for production of the perfume and cosmetic industry.
The key in the area is the machine-building complex. Its profile is the production of large and low-tonnage vessels, powerful dredgers, floating cranes, docks, metal-cutting machines, corn harvesters, tractor plows, equipment for the food industry, heavy cranes, construction machines, televisions and electrical engineering, printing …
Shipbuilding is concentrated in Mykolayiv and Kherson, ship repair – in Odessa, Illichivsk, Izmail, Kiliya, Kherson.
Machine tool construction is developed in Odessa.
Energy and electrical engineering is developing in Nova Kakhovka, Pervomaisk, Odessa, Simferopol, Kherson).
Instrument making and tool production are concentrated in large cities – Odessa, Nikolaev.
Agricultural machinery of the district specializes in the production of corn harvesters (Kherson), tractor plows (Odessa), irrigation equipment (Dzhankoy).
On the basis of brine from Sivash, salt lakes in the west of Crimea and imported raw materials (oil, sulfur pyrite, apatite, ilmenite), the chemical industry is developing.
Among the main enterprises of the chemical industry are bromine production in Krasnoperekopsk, chemical plant in Saki, superphosphate, nitrogen-current, chemical-pharmaceutical, paint and varnish plants in Odessa.
The metallurgical complex is represented in the area by the primary raw material link. Mining is carried out in the Kerch iron ore basin by the Kamysh-Burun iron ore plant, and raw materials are sent to Mariupol for enrichment. In Nikolaev the alumina plant giving raw materials for needs of the Zaporozhye aluminum combine works.
Fuel and energy complex. Kakhovka HPP on the Dnieper River operates on local hydro resources. The main share of electricity is generated at thermal power plants and combined heat and power plants (Simferopol, Kamysh-Burunska, Sevastopol, Odessa, Mykolaiv, Kherson). The South Ukrainian NPP is working.
The fuel industry has significant prospects due to the growth of oil and gas production in the Black Sea region, the start of operation of the Odessa-Brody oil pipeline and the Odessa oil terminal.
Agriculture. The district is the granary of Ukraine. The steppes have been transformed into a grain belt of winter wheat and corn. Areas occupied by cereals occupy almost half of the sown area of the district. Among industrial crops, the leading place is occupied by sunflower, essential oils (coriander, rose, lavender, sage, etc.), tobacco, and sugar beets. Vegetable and melon crops (tomatoes, sweet peppers, eggplants and zucchini, watermelons and melons) are of interdistrict importance.
Vegetable growing is actively developing around the millionaire city of Odessa, major centers of the canning industry (Kherson and Izmail) and in the south-west of Crimea. Melons are cultivated throughout the district. The area is famous for its gardens and vineyards. Gardening is widespread throughout the district, but especially in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. The plantations are dominated by apricots, peaches, cherries, cherries, plums, apples, pears, walnuts, almonds. The region ranks first in Ukraine in terms of vineyard saturation (Crimea and Odesa region).
The main branches of animal husbandry are dairy and meat and meat and dairy cattle breeding, pig breeding, sheep breeding, poultry farming, beekeeping and silkworm breeding. The region is the most important in Ukraine for the production of fine wool.
The food industry is actively developing on a powerful agricultural resource base. Of particular importance are the wine, fish, fruit and vegetable canning, meat, dairy and oil and fat industries.